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Research & Revalidation

Professor Azzopardi and Team's keen research interest ensures you are at the forefront of evidence-based treatment in a speciality which is rapidly updating itself. Practitioners in private practice often do not do much research. Professor Azzopardi not only enjoys international respect in the research world but also is revalidated in the UK 

What does revalidation mean? It means every 4 years, a specialist must prove that they are still in good standing with the regulator, up to date, and able to reflect and learn from their experiences. 


We strongly believes in teaching and passing on to the next generation of students our experience. Prof Azzopardi  has written extensive chapters in reference textbooks used by trainees. He has published extensively in international, high calibre scientific journals, and specialty leaders, and maintains an active research interest, as Chief investigator of several international studies. 

The QUANTICO project aims to provide a combined approach to the development of new and emerging technologies. Contact us on for more information


Latest on scarring. We are proud to announce that Professor Azzopardi and team's experience on scars has been recognized by the scientific community. Based on over 2550 scars treated, the Azzopardi ® classification of scars embeds a simple language through which doctors can speak to eachother, and, you can communicate clearly to your Doctor, what you wish to seek treatment about. 

Not only does this focus your doctor's mind to what really matters to you, but it also makes you aware of what aspects of the scar can be changed, the order through which they should be approached. 

Intellectual property


Azzopardi, E.A. and Teixeira, R.S.R Procédé de détection d'une infection bactérienne dans un échantillon biologique. Trubac Ltd. WO EP WO2017182765A1, Priority 2016-04-15.  S20190119720A1. 2022. Validated GB FR DE MT USA 



Original Research Papers


Wilde C, Kaushik M, Neumann I, Verma P, Azzopardi EA, Ezra DG. Safety and efficacy of subcutaneous diode laser as a novel treatment in the management of festoons. Lasers in Medical Science. 2023 Jul 31;38(1):170.


Azzopardi, E. A., Azzopardi, S. R., Clementoni, M. T., Boyce, D. E., Sadideen, H., & Mosahebi, A. (2023). Endolesional ablation of xanthelasma using microfiber optic laser delivery. Laser Therapy, 30(1).


Azzopardi EA, Sadideen, H., Boyce DE., Tretti Clementoni, M., “Management interventions for amputation stump neuromas” Laser Therapy Journal In Press 2023


Zammit, Christian, Jean Calleja‐Agius, Ernest Azzopardi. "Augmented reality for teaching anatomy." Clinical Anatomy. 2022. 35.6: 824-827. 


Azzopardi EA, Abdelrahman W, Miles N, Yarrow J, Tretti Clementoni M, Murison M. Azzopardi, E. A., et al. Treatment of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma with combined laser extirpation and methyl aminolevulinic acid: five-year success rates." The Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England.2021. 103(4): 263-271. 


Pedrelli V, Azzopardi E, Azzopardi E, Tretti Clementoni M. Picosecond laser versus historical responses to Q-switched lasers for tattoo treatment". Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy 2021:1-5. 


Khan K, Azzopardi E, Camilleri L, Azzopardi EA, Bragg TH. Value of clinical, ultrasonographic and MRI signs as diagnostic differentiators of non-benign lipomatous tumours. Sci Rep. 2020

Nov 27;10(1):20756. https://doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-77244-2   

Khan K, Azzopardi E, Camilleri L, Azzopardi EA,* Bragg T*. Value of clinical, ultrasonographic and MRI signs as diagnostic differentiators of non-benign lipomatous tumours. 

Sci Rep. 2020 Nov 27;10(1):20756. https://doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-77244-2 Role: Joint senior author (coauthor) 


Azzopardi EA, Abdelrahman W, Azzopardi E, O'Leary B, Yarrow J, Miles N, Barbara C, Camilleri L, Clementoni MT, Murison M. Treatment of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma with combined laser extirpation and methyl aminolevulinic acid: five-year success rates. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2021 Feb 9. doi: 10.1308/rcsann.2020.7020. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33557701. 


Role: primary author,  


Tretti Clementoni M., Pedrelli V., Zaccaria G., Pontini P., Motta LR., Azzopardi EA. 2019. New Developments for Fractional CO2 Resurfacing for Skin Rejuvenation and Scar Reduction. Facial Plast Surg Clin N Am. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2020 Feb;28(1):17-28. doi: 



Azzopardi EA., Duncan RT., Kearns M., Marangoni F., Ibrahim N., Azzopardi EF, Tretti M., Murison M. 2019. Cutaneous Laser Surgery for secondary burn reconstruction: cost benefit analysis. Burns. 46 (3), 556-561.   


Marsden NJ, Van M, Dean S, Azzopardi EA, Hemington-Gorse S, Evans PA, Whitaker IS. 

Measuring coagulation in burns: an evidence-based systematic review. Scars, burns & healing 2018;3:2059513117728201. doi: 10.1177/2059513117728201  


Sawhney MA, Azzopardi EA, Rodrigues Teixeira S, Francis LW, Conlan RS, Gazze SA. 

Measuring the impact on impedance spectroscopy of pseudo-reference electrode accumulations. 

Electrochemistry Communications 2019;105:106508. 


McGoldrick RB, Theodorakopoulou E, Azzopardi EA, Murison M. 2017. Lasers and ancillary treatments for scar management Part 2: Keloid, hypertrophic, pigmented and acne scars. Scars, Burns & Healing. 3:2059513116689805. 


Azzopardi, E., Owens, S., Murison, M., Rees, D., Sawhney, M.A., Francis, L., Texeira, R.S.R., 

Clement, M., Conlan, R.S. and Whitaker, I., 2017. Chromophores in 249 (1): 123–130 (the operative surgery: Current practice and rationalized development. Journal of Controlled Release. 

Azzopardi classification of chromophores)  


Texeira RS, Lloyd C, Gazze A, Burwell G, Yao S, Whitaker IS, Francis L, Conlan RS, Azzopardi  

EA. Polyaniline-graphene based α-amylase biosensor with a linear dynamic range in excess of 6 orders of magnitude. Biosensors and Biotechnology 2016 Nov 15;85:395-402. doi: 

10.1016/j.bios.2016.05.034. Epub 2016 May 10.   


Azzopardi EA, Conlan RS, Whitaker IS. Polymer therapeutics in surgery: the next frontier. J Interdiscip Nanomed. 2016 Apr;1(1):19-29. Epub 2016 Apr 18. Review. 


Azzopardi EA*, Lloyd C*, Rodriguez Texeira RS, Whitaker IS**, Conlan RS**. Clinical Applications of Amylase: Novel Perspectives. Surgery. 20150922.  


Azzopardi EA, Ferguson EL and Thomas DW. Development and validation of an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to test the antibacterial efficacy of antibiotic polymer conjugates. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2015, 59: 1837-43. 


Ferguson E, Azzopardi E andThomas D. Polymer therapeutics for improved efficiency and safety of antibiotics for Gram-negative infections. Wound Repair And Regeneration. 2014, 22: A79-A. 


Ferguson EL, Azzopardi E, Roberts JL, Walsh TR, Thomas DW. Dextrin–colistin conjugates as a model bioresponsive treatment for multidrug resistant bacterial infections. Molecular Pharmaceutics. 2014, 11: 4437-47. 

Azzopardi EA, Azzopardi E, Camilleri L et al. Gram Negative wound infection in hospitalised adult burn patients-systematic review and metanalysis. PloS One. 2014, 9: e95042. 


Azzopardi E, Ferguson E, Thomas D. A novel class of bioreponsive nanomedicines for localised reinstatement of bioactivity and specific targeting. The Lancet. 2014, 383: S9. 


Azzopardi EA. Bioresponsive dextrin-colistin conjugates as antimicrobial agents for the treatment of Gram-negative infection.  Wound Biology Group. Cardiff, Cardiff University, 2013, Vol 1. PhD. 


Azzopardi EA, Ferguson E andThomas D. A new class of nanoantibiotics directed at multidrug resistant surgical infection-ex vivo release kinetics and targeting potential. British Journal Of Surgery. 2013, 100: 74-. 


Oomman A, Tickunas T, Javed M, Azzopardi EA, Whitaker IS. Changes in perceptions regarding correct preoperative storage and transfer of amputated digits: A 5‐year follow‐up. Microsurgery. 

2014, 34: 76-7. 


Azzopardi EA, Boyce DE, Dickson WA et al. Application of topical negative pressure (vacuumassisted closure) to split-thickness skin grafts: A structured evidence-based review.

Annals of Plastic Surgery. 2013, 70: 23-9. 


Azzopardi EA, Boyce DE, Thomas DW, Dickson WA. Colistin in burn intensive care: Back to the future? Burns. 2013, 39: 7-15. 


Azzopardi EA, Camilleri L, Moseley R, et al. Statistical characterization of succinoylated dextrin degradation behavior in human α-amylase. Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry. 2013, 32: 438-49. 


Azzopardi EA, Ferguson EL, Thomas DW. Colistin past and future: A bibliographic analysis. 

Journal of critical care. 2013, 28: 219. e13-. e19. 


Shokrollahi K, Azzopardi E, Boyce D, et al. Application of topical negative pressure (vac) to split thickness skin grafts: A structured evidence-based review. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 

2013, 132: 154-5. 


Azzopardi EA, Ferguson EL, Thomas DW. The enhanced permeability retention effect: A new paradigm for drug targeting in infection. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2013, 68: 257-



Whitaker IS, Oboumarzouk O, Rozen WM et al. The efficacy of medicinal leeches in plastic and reconstructive surgery: A systematic review of 277 reported clinical cases. Microsurgery. 2012, 32: 240-50. 

Azzopardi EA and Boyce DE. Clostridium histolyticum collagenase in the treatment of dupuytren's contracture. British Journal Of Hospital Medicine (London, England: 2005). 2012, 73: 



Azzopardi EA, Whitaker IS, Rozen WM, et al. Chemical and mechanical alternatives to leech therapy: A systematic review and critical appraisal. Journal of reconstructive microsurgery. 2011, 27: 481-6. 


Whitaker IS, Josty IC, Hawkins S et al. Medicinal leeches and the microsurgeon: A four‐year study, clinical series and risk benefit review. Microsurgery. 2011, 31: 281-7. 


Azzopardi EA and Whitaker IS. Acute pain management during facial injection of botulinum toxin:

An evidence-based systematic review. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. 2010, 125: 162e4e. 


Branford O, Azzopardi E, Iyer S. A case of simultaneous digital flexor and extensor tendon injuries in zone i. Journal of Hand Surgery (European Volume). 2010, 35: 678-9. 


Leung C, Drew P, Azzopardi EA. Extended multidrug-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia septicemia in a severely burnt patient. Journal of Burn Care & Research. 2010, 31: 966. 

Whitaker IS, Kamya C, Azzopardi EA, Graf J, Kon M and Lineaweaver WC. Preventing infective complications following leech therapy: Is practice keeping pace with current research? 

Microsurgery. 2009, 29: 619-25. 


Azzopardi EA, Gujral S, Mandal A, Kulkarni M. Rapidly expanding thenar eminence ganglion: A case report. Cases Journal. 2009, 2: 129. 


Azzopardi EA, McWilliams B, Iyer S, Whitaker IS. Fluid resuscitation in adults with severe burns at risk of secondary abdominal compartment syndrome—an evidence based systematic review. 

Burns. 2009, 35: 911-20. 


Azzopardi EA, Xuereb CB, Iyer S. Pyogenic granuloma as a surrogate indicator of deep seated foreign bodies: A case report. Cases J. 2009, 2: 7354. 


Azzopardi EA, Mc Williams B, Srinvasan I. Fluid resuscitation management in severely burnt adults at risk of secondary abdominal compartment syndrome-an evidence based systematic review. Acta Clinica Belgica. 2009, 64: 272-. 


Azzopardi EA, Whitaker I. Perceptions of correct preoperative storage and transfer of amputated digits: A national survey of referring emergency departments. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery. 2008, 61: 1418. 


Books & Book Chapters             


Azzopardi EA (Ed.). UK Certification in Laser and High Energy Devices. Thieme Publishers International  (BAAPS Ed.) (in progress).  


Tretti Clementoni, M. Azzopardi EA. Minimal-invasive technologies for treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids: Fractional Lasers. Textbook on Scar Management. Guidelines, State of the Art

Management and Emerging Technologies. Theot L. Ed. (Springer Nature) 


Tretti Clementoni, M.* Azzopardi EA Specific attention areas in Scar management: Management of atrophic scars. Theot L. Ed.  (Springer Nature) 


Soft tissue infection in burn patients. Oxford Handbook of Burns Authors:  Azzopardi EA, Barbara 

C.) In press. Dickson WA., et al. (Ed.) Oxford University Publishers                               


Azzopardi E., McGoldrick, Theodorakopoulou J., and Murison M., Multimodality Treatment of Scars. Shokrollahi K. (Ed). Elsevier Inc. 2018 


Azzopardi E. McWilliams B. Boyce DE. 2011. Gram-negative burn wound infection - An 

Evidence Based Perspective Berlin, Ge: Lambert Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-3-8383 -9025-


Azzopardi E, Boyce DE, Peripheral Nerve Tumours of the Upper Limb. In. E-LPRAS.   

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